Energy plays a pivotal role in our day to day life. Energy is needed for household activities, maintaining communication networks, and for transportation. Abundant and reasonably priced energy makes our lives better in a number of ways. The government plays a very important role in developing and regulating different sources of energy. In the U.S., the fields of energy policy and conservation are primarily governed by federal statutes. They are supplemented by state law where federal law does not address the issue.
The states of the U.S. have their own policies, rules, and regulations concerning exploitation, development, and use of energy resources within the boundaries of their jurisdiction. The body regulating various sources of energy and the state regulatory requirements vary from state to state. Each state has its own department/divisions/agencies to provide safe, sustainable, reliable, and reasonably priced energy to its citizens. In some states, the activities relating to energy development and conservation is consolidated in their state department of energy. For example, in Oregon, the Oregon Department of Energy is responsible for energy development, research, and conservation activities. Whereas, in other states, other independent bodies, or divisions within the state department of natural resources, or state department of environment is responsible for regulating energy related activities. For example, in Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with the aid of divisions/offices under it manages activities related to the development and conservation of energy. In most states, the public utilities commission within the state is responsible to ensure that safe and reliable utility services are provided to consumers at just and reasonable rates.